Volcanoes of Alaska

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Volcanoes of Alaska
Abstract:
This dataset comprises the locations of volcanoes and volcanic centers in Alaska.
Supplemental_Information:
The layers listed below are present as ArcGIS shape files. Attribute information for the following layers (entities) is included in this metadata file under the "Entity_and_Attribute_Information" section. Each layer is listed and described in detail under its own heading starting "Entity_Type_Label." Layers include:
ak_volccent_polygon     locations of volcanic centers
akvolcanoes_point     locations of volcanoes
volcano4mil_age_annotation     age annotations for volcanoes and volcanic centers
volcano4mil_annotation     name annotations for volcanoes and volcanic centers
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Nye, C.J., 1998, Volcanoes of Alaska: Information Circular IC 38 ed. 1998, State of Alaska, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska - USA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 166.50732167
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -124.15335629
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 63.70879775
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 49.94922539

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 1980
    Ending_Date: 1998
    Currentness_Reference: publication date

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map, vector digital data

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      The map projection used is Albers Conical Equal Area.

      Projection parameters:
      Standard_Parallel: 55
      Standard_Parallel: 65
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50
      False_Easting: 0.00000
      False_Northing: 0.00000

      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.008192
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.008192
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters

      The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1927.
      The ellipsoid used is Clarke 1866.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378206.4.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/294.98.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    akvolcanoes_point.shp
    Object type is vector, there are 115 rows associated with this entity, and the entity values refer to volcano locations. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    LONG
    Longitude (Source: Albers Conical Equal Area, NAD 27 (see Spatial_Reference_Information))

    Range of values
    Minimum:-178.794
    Maximum:179.6306
    Units:decimal degrees

    LAT
    Latitude (Source: Albers Conical Equal Area, NAD 27 (see Spatial_Reference_Information))

    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:64.07
    Units:decimal degrees

    NAME
    Name of volcano (Source: Luedke and Smith, 1986; Wood and Kienle, 1990)

    Volcano names: short, most commonly used name of a volcanic center

    ALTITUDE
    Elevation at the summit of the volcano (Source: Luedke and Smith, 1986; Wood and Kienle, 1990)

    Range of values
    Minimum:180
    Maximum:3375
    Units:meters

    MORPHOLOGY
    Type of volcano (Source: Luedke and Smith, 1986; Wood and Kienle, 1990)

    Volcano type, generally assigned according to the volcano's eruptive characteristics, shape, and formation history

    AGE
    Date of last eruption (Source: Luedke and Smith, 1986; Wood and Kienle, 1990)

    Approximate age in years, geologic period, or epoch

    TYPE
    Typical eruption style (Source: Luedke and Smith, 1986; Wood and Kienle, 1990)

    Most common eruption style for each volcano ranging from effusive to caldera-forming

    ERUPTIONS
    Number of known eruptions (Source: Luedke and Smith, 1986; Wood and Kienle, 1990)

    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:41
    Units:known eruptions

    NUMBER
    Unknown (Source: Unknown)

    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:119
    Units:Unknown

    REGION
    General location within Alaska (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    ValueDefinition
    InteriorVolcano is located in the interior portion of the Alaska mainland

    ak_volccent_polygon.shp
    Object type is vector, there are 1335 rows associated with this entity, and the entity values refer to volcanic center regions. This feature was not assigned any user defined attribute. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    volcano4mil_annotation.shp
    Object type is vector, there are 115 rows associated with this entity, and the entity values refer to volcano name annotations. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    TEXT
    Name of volcano (Source: Luedke and Smith, 1986; Wood and Kienle, 1990)

    Volcano names: short, most commonly used name of a volcanic center

    volcano4mil_age_annotation.shp
    Object type is vector, there are 70 rows associated with this entity, and the entity values refer to volcanic eruption date/history annotations. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    TEXT
    Date of last eruption (Source: Luedke and Smith, 1986; Wood and Kienle, 1990)

    Approximate age in years, geologic period, or epoch


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    This research was partially supported by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Department of the Interior, under USGS award number 1434-HQ-96-GR-02713. Additional Acknowledgments: Geology modified from Schmoll and Dobrovolny (1972). Digital cartography by R.A. Combellick and S.M. Weems, with suggestions by A.L. Schell. R.D. Reger and P.J. Haeussler provided helpful comments on the draft map and cross sections.

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
    GIS Data Manager/Cartographer
    3354 College Road
    Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707

    (907) 451-5020 (voice)
    (907) 451-5050 (FAX)
    dggspubs@alaska.gov

    Contact_Instructions:
    You may view our web site at <http://www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us> for the latest information on available data. Please e-mail your questions and data requests when possible since our web site and e-mail address will remain current even if our phone number and mailing address change.


Why was the data set created?

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) is a joint program of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS). AVO monitors and studies Alaska's hazardous volcanoes, predicts and records eruptive activity, and works closely with other agencies to implement public safety measures.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    Luedke and Smith (1986) (source 1 of 5)
    Luedke, R.G., and Smith, R.L., 1986, Map showing distribution, composition, and age of late Cenozoic volcanic centers in Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Map I 1091-F, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, DC, USA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 3 sheets, scale 1:1,000,000
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    These data were used to help identify volcano locations, eruption styles, composition, and ages.

    Myers and others (1997) (source 2 of 5)
    Myers, B., Stauffer, P., and Hendley, J.W. II, 1997, What are volcano hazards?: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 002-97, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, DC, USA.

    Other_Citation_Details: 1 sheet
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    These data were used to derive the factual information regarding volcanic hazards in Alaska.

    Plafker and others (1994) (source 3 of 5)
    Plafker, George, Gilpin, L.M., and Lahr, J.C., 1994, Neotectonic map of Alaska:.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Plafker, George (ed.), and Berg, H.C. (ed.), 1994, Geology of Alaska: None v. G-1, Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO.

    Other_Citation_Details: 1055 pp., scale 1:2,500,000, plates included
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    These data were used to help define the regional structural geology and volcanic history of Alaska.

    Moore (1992) (source 4 of 5)
    Moore, G.M., 1992, Plate tectonic map of the Circum-Pacific Region, Arctic Sheet: U.S. Geological Survey Circum-Pacific map series CP-41, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, DC, USA.

    Other_Citation_Details: 1 sheet, scale 1:10,000,000
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    These data were used to help define the regional structural geology of Alaska.

    Wood and Kienle (1990) (source 5 of 5)
    Wood, C.A., and Kienle, J., 1990, Volcanoes of North America-United States and Canada: None None, Cambridge University Press, Washington, DC, USA.

    Other_Citation_Details: 354 pp.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    These data were used to derive the factual information regarding volcanic hazards in Alaska and help identify volcano locations, eruption styles, composition, and ages.

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 1997 (process 1 of 1)
    The "akvolcanoes" data was created from a file of volcano names and locations from the Alaska Earthquake Information Center. The details on each volcano were obtained from AVO research and the publication, Volcanoes of North America-United States and Canada (Wood and Kienle, 1990). The "ak_volccent" data was created by digitizing points from a paper copy of U.S. Geological Survey Map I-1091-F, showing distributions, composition and age of late Cenozoic volcanic centers in Alaska. Coverages were created using Arc/Info 7.0.4, distributed by ESRI, Inc. Locations of volcanoes were acquired from latitude and longitude points found in Luedke and Smith (1986) and Wood and Kienle (1990), although errors may exist. The points were entered into a spreadsheet and e00 coverages were created using GIS software. The structural lines on the map may have been digitized into a GIS environment using data from Plafker and others (1994) and Moore (1992), or an unknown source. Polygons depicting the outcrop areas of volcanic rocks were generated from Luedke and Smith (1986). Factual information regarding volcanoes was produced in part from Myers and others (1997) and Wood and Kienle (1990).

    Data sources used in this process:

    • Luedke and Smith (1986)
    • Myers and others (1997)
    • Moore (1992)
    • Wood and Kienle (1990)

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

    The "ak_volccent" data was created by digitizing points from a paper copy of U.S. Geological Survey Map I-1091-F, showing distributions, composition and age of late Cenozoic volcanic centers in Alaska. Coverages were created using Arc/Info 7.0.4, distributed by ESRI, Inc. Locations of volcanoes were acquired from latitude and longitude points found in Luedke and Smith (1990) and Wood and Kienle (1990), although errors may exist. The points were entered into a spreadsheet and e00 coverages were created using GIS software. The structural lines on the map may have been digitized into a GIS environment using data from Plafker and others (1994) and Moore (1992), or an unknown source.

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    This data set includes locations of volcanoes and volcanic centers in Alaska as of 1998. The elevation, morphology, age, type of eruption, and number of eruptions was gathered in July 1997.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    Polygon topology present and clean on appropriate data. Other data are line, point, or annotation data and do not require topologic relationships.


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints:
This report, map, and/or dataset are available directly from the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (see contact information below).
Use_Constraints:
Any hard copies or published datasets utilizing these datasets shall clearly indicate their source. If the user has modified the data in any way, the user is obligated to describe the types of modifications the user has made. User specifically agrees not to misrepresent these datasets, nor to imply that changes made by the user were approved by the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
    Natural Resource Technician
    3354 College Road
    Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707
    USA

    907-451-5020 (voice)
    907-451-5050 (FAX)
    dggspubs@alaska.gov

    Hours_of_Service: 8 am to 4:30 pm, Monday through Friday, except State holidays
    Contact_Instructions:
    Please view our web site (<http://www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us>) for the latest information on available data. Please contact us using the e-mail address provided above when possible.
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Information Circular 38 ed. 1998

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    The State of Alaska makes no express or implied warranties (including warranties of merchantability and fitness) with respect to the character, function, or capabilities of the electronic services or products or their appropriateness for any user's purposes. In no event will the State of Alaska be liable for any incidental, indirect, special, consequential, or other damages suffered by the user or any other person or entity whether from the use of the electronic services or products, any failure thereof, or otherwise, and in no event will the State of Alaska's liability to the requester or anyone else exceed the fee paid for the electronic service or product.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?

    Please check the MapInfo web site (<http://www.mapinfo.com/>) for the latest documentation on importing ESRI shape files.


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 06-May-2008
Last Reviewed: 06-May-2008
To be reviewed: 15-Mar-2009
Metadata author:
State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
Metadata Manager
3354 College Road
Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707
USA

907-451-5039 (voice)
907-451-5050 (FAX)
dggspubs@alaska.gov

Hours_of_Service: 8 am to 4:30 pm, Monday through Friday, except State holidays.
Contact_Instructions:
Please contact us through the e-mail address above whenever possible.
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


Generated by mp version 2.9.6 on Tue May 06 14:29:34 2008