Active and potentially active faults in or near the Alaska Highway corridor, Delta Junction to Dot Lake, Alaska

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Active and potentially active faults in or near the Alaska Highway corridor, Delta Junction to Dot Lake, Alaska
Abstract:
During the 2006 and 2007 field seasons, geologic features indicative of possible youthful surface faulting in or near the Alaska Highway corridor between Delta Junction and Dot Lake were identified by helicopter and fixed-wing air reconnaissance, augmented by interpretation of stereo air photos, remotely sensed images, and aeromagnetic and electromagnetic (EM) datanction to the eastern boundary of the Mt. Hayes Quadrangle. The largest of these faults is the previously unrecognized Dot "T" Johnson fault, a major west-trending, south-dipping thrust fault bordering the northern margin of the Alaska Range along the south side of the Tanana River valley. Two other faults identified as active in this study, the Canteen and Granite Mountain-Panoramic faults, are northeast-trending, left-lateral, strike-slip faults that connect segments of the Dot "T" Johnson thrust system, where they are separated by large left steps. The Billy Creek fault is a northeast-trending, left-lateral, strike-slip fault in the Yukon-Tanana Upland north of the Tanana River valley.
Supplemental_Information:
Attribute information for the following tables (entities) is included in this metadata file under the "Entity_and_Attribution_Information" section. Layers include: > Table1_Coordinates analytical results for radiocarbon samples > Appendix1_14C_Ages analytical results for radiocarbon samples
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Carver, G.A, Bemis, S.P., Solie, D.N., and Obermiller, K.E., 200811, Active and potentially active faults in or near the Alaska Highway corridor, Delta Junction to Dot Lake, Alaska: Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2008-3D, State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska - USA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 32 p.

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -145.50000
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -143.90000
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 64.00000
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 63.50000

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 2006
    Ending_Date: 2007
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 6
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -147.00000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0

      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.0005
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.0005
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters

      The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1927.
      The ellipsoid used is Clarke 1866.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378206.4.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/294.978698.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Table1_coordinates.csv
    Geographic coordinates for trenches, core site and profiles (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Name
    Name of the trench, core site or profile (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Name of the trench, core site or profile

    Latitude
    Latitude of trench, core site or profile, NAD 27 Alaska datum. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:63.6067
    Maximum:63.8421
    Units:degrees

    Longitude
    Longitude of trench, core site or profile, NAD 27 Alaska datum (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:-145.4560
    Maximum:-143.9254
    Units:degrees

    UTM E NAD 27
    Easting in UTM zone 6 or 7, NAD 27, Clark 1866 (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:351570
    Maximum:638523
    Units:meters

    UTM N NAD 27
    Northing in UTM, zone 6 or 7, NAD 27, Clark 1866 (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:7057887
    Maximum:7080146
    Units:meters

    UTM Zone
    UTM zone in which trench, core site or profile is located (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:7
    Units:zone

    USGS quadrangle
    1:63,360 USGS quadrangle in which trench, core site or profile is located (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    1:63,360 USGS quadrangle in the Mount Hayes or Tanacross quadrangles.

    Appendix1_14C_ages.csv
    Analytical results for radiocarbon samples (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys and Beta Analytic Inc.)

    Site
    Name of the trench, core site or profile (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Name of the trench, core site or profile

    Sample Number
    Sample number which is unique identifier for each radiocarbon sample, based on an abbreviation for trench followed by a consecutive number of sample collected from trench and depth in cm from surface. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Unique sample number given to each radiocarbon sample analyzed.

    Location
    Location of sample within trench wall, as shown on gridded trench log, or in core. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Description of location of each sample based on trench log.

    Sample Material
    Type of carbon material dated (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Type of carbon analyzed (ie, detrital charcoal, peaty material, wood, charcoal).

    Paleoseismic Significance
    Purpose for obtaining the age date; what constraints on timing the age imparts (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Paleoseismic event or timing constrained by age date.

    Lab Number
    Unique identifying sample number assigned by the laboratory at Beta Analytic Inc. (Source: Beta Analytic Inc.)

    Unique sample identifying numbers, preceded by "Beta" (eg, Beta-235569)

    Lab_Age_BP
    Radiocarbon years before present, ("present" being 1950). Quoted errors represent 1 standard deviation statistics. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys and Beta Analytic Inc.)

    Range of values
    Minimum:10
    Maximum:8690
    Units:years

    13C/12C
    Measured ratio of 13C to 12C, calculated relative to the PCB-1 international standard. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys and Beta Analytic Inc.)

    Range of values
    Minimum:-28.2
    Maximum:-23.5
    Units:0/00

    Cal BP
    Radiocarbon age calibrated to calendar years using the OxCal v4.0 calibration program and teh IntCal 04 calibration curve. Ages reported as calibrated 2 sigma ranges before present. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys and Beta Analytic In.)

    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:12,870
    Units:years


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    This research was supported by 2005 and 2006 Alaska State Capital Improvement Projects funding. Additional Acknowledgments: Ray J. Weldon (University of Oregon) for reviews of the Billy Creek, Canteen, and Dot "T" Johnson I and II trenches; Peter Haeussler (USGS) and Gordon Seitz (San Diego State University) for reviews of the Sears Creek trench. Valuable discussions with Richard D. Reger (Reger Geologic Consulting), Robert F. Swenson (ADGGS Director and State Geologist), and Rodney A. Combellick (ADGGS Deputy Director) are also acknowledged. The report was reviewed by Richard D. Reger.

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
    GIS Data Manager/Cartographer
    3354 College Road
    Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707

    (907) 451-5029 (voice)
    (907) 451-5050 (FAX)
    dggspubs@alaska.gov

    Contact_Instructions:
    You may view our web site at <http://www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us> for the latest information on available data. Please e-mail your questions and data requests when possible since our web site and e-mail address will remain current even if our phone number and mailing address change.


Why was the data set created?

This report is a part of ADGGS's Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline Geology and Geohazards project. The study was done in anticipation of the proposed natural gas pipeline along the Alaska Highway corridor. Recognition of potentially active faults is an important factor in design engineering of infrastructure.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    Bemis and Wallace, 2007 (source 1 of 10)
    Bemis, S.P., and Wallace, W.K., 2007, Neotectonic framework of the north-central Alaska Range foothills: Geological Society of America Special Paper 431 SP 431.

    Other_Citation_Details: p. 549-572
    This is part of the following larger work.

    Ridgeway, K.D., Trop, J.M., Glen, M.G., and O'Neill, J.M., 2007, Tectonic growth of a collisional continental margin: Geological Society of America Special Paper Speical Paper 431.

    Other_Citation_Details: editors
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: tectonic framework

    Bemis thesis, 2004 (source 2 of 10)
    Bemis, S.P., 2004, Neotectonic framework of the north-central Alaska Range foothills: University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK.

    Other_Citation_Details: Masters Theses, 142 pages
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: tectonic framework

    Bemis, Weldon & Burns, 2005 (source 3 of 10)
    Bemis, S.P., Weldon, R.J., and Burns, P.A.C., 2005, Progress in characterizing active faults of the northern flank of the Alaska Range: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs v. 37, no. 7, p.78.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, vol.37, no. 7, p. 78, Annual Meeting, October 16, 2005
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Canteen fault abstract

    Burns, 2006 (source 4 of 10)
    Burns, L.E., Surveys, Fugro Airborne , and Stevens Exploration Management Corp., 2006, Line, grid and vector data, and plot files for the airborne geophysical survey of the Alaska Highway corridor, east-central Alaska: Geophysical Report GR 2006-6, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks AK.

    Type_of_Source_Media: DVD
    Source_Contribution: airborne geophysical data

    Carver and others, 2004 (source 5 of 10)
    Carver, G.A., Plafker, George, Metz, Mike, Cluff, Lloyd, Slemmons, Burt, Johnson, Elden, Roddick, Jim, and Sorensen, Steve, 2004, Surface rupture on the Denali fault interpreted from tree damage during the 1912 Delta River MW7.2-7.4 earthquake: Implications for the 2002 Denali fault earthquake slip distribution: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America vol 94, no. 6B.

    Other_Citation_Details: p. S58-S71
    This is part of the following larger work.

    Rowe, C.A., Christensen, Doug, and Carver, G.A., 2004, The 2002 Denali fault earthquake sequence: Bulletin of the Seismoloigcal Society of America Dedicated Issue.

    Other_Citation_Details: v.94, no.6B
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Denali fault surface rupture

    Carver and others, 2006 (source 6 of 10)
    Carver, G.A., Plafker, George, Metz, Mike, Cluff, Lloyd, Bemis, Sean, Roddick, Jim, Redington, Julie, and Sorensen, Steve, 2006, Late Quaternary growth of thrust faults and associated folds in the eastern part of the Northern Foothills Fold and Thrust Belt, central Alaska Range, Alaska: American Geophysical Union, Alaska.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Chapman Conference on Active Tectonics and Seismic Potential of Alaska, May 11-14, 2006
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: eastern Northern Foothills fold and thrust belt

    Matmon and others, 2006 (source 7 of 10)
    Matmon, Ari, Schwartz, D.P., Haeussler, P.J., Finkel, Robert, Lienkaemper, J.J., Stenner, H.D., and Dawson, T.E., 2006, Denali fault slip rates and Holocene-late Pleistocene kinematics of central Alaska: Geology v.34, no.8.

    Other_Citation_Details: p.645-648
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Denali slip rates, central Alaska kinematics

    Page and others, 1995 (source 8 of 10)
    Page, R.A., Plafker, George, and Pulpan, Hans, 1995, Block rotation in east-central Alaska: a framework for evaluating earthquake potential?: Geology v.23, no.7.

    Other_Citation_Details: p.629-632
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: block rotation in east-central Alaska

    Plafker and others, 1994 (source 9 of 10)
    Plafker, George, Gilpin, L.M., and Lahr, J.C., 1994, Neotectonic map of Alaska:.

    Other_Citation_Details: scale 1:2,500,000
    This is part of the following larger work.

    Plafker, George, and Berg, H.C., 1994, The geology of Alaska: DNAG v.G-1, Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    editors 12 plates
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Neotectonic map of Alaska

    Reger and others, 2008 (source 10 of 10)
    Reger, R.D., Stevens, D.S.P., and Solie, D.N., 2008, Surficial-geologic map of the Alaska Highway corridor, Delta Junction to Dot Lake, Alaska: Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2008-3a, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK.

    Other_Citation_Details: 2 sheets, scale 1:63,360
    Type_of_Source_Media: digital database file
    Source_Contribution: surficial geology map

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 2007 (process 1 of 5)
    Initial reconnaissance - an initial interpretation of stereo air photos, remote sensed images, DEM's, and topographic maps of the corridor and surrounding regions was done prior to fieldwork. We also conducted a review of published and unpublished reports and geologic and geophysical survey maps to identify and locate lineaments and potentially active faults for further study. This initial phase was followed by fixed wing and helicopter reconnaissance of the corridor and adjacent regions with emphasis on potential faults and lineaments identified from the review of literature, air photos, remote sensed images, and maps. Based on the initial studies and the air reconnaissance, we identified lineaments and potentially active faults judged to warrant further studied in the field and selected sites for detailed investigation.

    Data sources used in this process:

    • Bemis and Wallace, 2007
    • Bemis thesis, 2004
    • Bemis, Weldon & Burns, 2005
    • Burns, 2006
    • Carver and others, 2004
    • Carver and others, 2006
    • Matmon and others, 2006
    • Page and others, 1995
    • Plafker and others, 1994
    • Reger and others, 2008

    Date: 2007 (process 2 of 5)
    Fieldwork - In July-August 2007, to further study specific sites identified in preliminary reconnaissance. The detailed investigations included geologic and geomorphic mapping, scarp profiling, measurement of scarp height and fault offset, and at selected sites, trenching and coring to develop paleoseismic information for active fault characterization

    Date: 2007 (process 3 of 5)
    Trenching - Trench sites were chosen to transect features suspected to be active faults, in order to expose a cross sectional view of faults and the most recent stratigraphy. At sites that were inaccessible to motorized excavation equipment we hand-dug the trenches. To facilitate field interpretation and logging we used nails to pin colored flagging along exposed contacts and faults on the cleaned trench walls. Logging of the trench walls was done by placing a grid of horizontal and vertical string lines over the exposed trench wall, and used this grid to accurately measure and transfer each feature to cross section Mylar. Each stratigraphic layer and feature of interest was described and locations of radiocarbon samples were recorded. Soil and sediment colors for each stratigraphic unit were defined using a Munsell Soil Color chart. Where possible, we collected radiocarbon samples from layers bounding faulting events to bracket the age of paleo-earthquakes interpreted from the stratigraphy. Upon completion, we backfilled the trenches, re-contoured the trench sites and replaced the natural vegetation.

    Date: 2007 (process 4 of 5)
    Labwork - The radiocarbon samples were carefully extracted to minimize contamination. Samples were stored in the field in aluminum foil bindles which were placed in labeled plastic bags after air-drying, and the dry samples transferred to labeled glass vials once they were out of the field. Before being sent to the laboratory for analyses, each sample was inspected through a binocular microscope, picked clean of mineral debris, and for some samples, individual plant macrofossils or charcoal grains were separated for analysis. Beta Analytic Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory in Miami Florida performed the radiocarbon age analyses on the 14C samples.

    Date: 2008 (process 5 of 5)
    Metadata creation - Metadata were assembled by D.N. Solie to FGDC Standards using Metavist 1.2, DGGS 7.05, a data entry program for FGDC metadata with XML output.

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    Reger, R.D., Stevens, D.S.P., and Solie, D.N., 2008, Surficial-geologic map, Alaska Highway Corridor, Delta Junction to Dot Lake, Alaska: Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2008-3a, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks AK.

    Other_Citation_Details: 2 sheets, scale 1:63,360
    Reger, R.D., and Solie, D.N., 2008, Engineering-geologic map, Alaska Highway Corriodor, Delta Junction to Dot Lake, Alaska: Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2008-3b, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks AK.

    Other_Citation_Details: 2 sheets, scale 1:63,360


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

    Locations of trenches, core sites and profiles are given for the approximate mid-point of each feature. The radiocarbon samples were carefully extracted from trench walls and cores to minimize contamination. Samples were stored in the field in aluminum foil packets which were placed in labeled plastic bags after air-drying, and the dry samples transferred to labeled glass vials once they were out of the field. Before being sent to the laboratory for analyses, each sample was inspected through a binocular microscope, picked clean of mineral debris, and for some samples, individual plant macrofossils or charcoal grains were separated for analysis. Beta Analytic Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory in Miami Florida performed the radiocarbon age analyses on the 14C samples. Samples were pretreated using the acid/alkali/acid standard pretreatment protocol. All analysis was done using AMS methods and included 13C corrections. Quoted errors for laboratory ages represent 1 standard deviation statistics (68% probability) and are based on combined measurements of the sample, background, and modern reference standards. Measured 13C/12C ratios were calculated relative to the PDB-1 international standard and the radiocarbon years before present ("Lab Age") were normalized to -25 per mil.

    Laboratory ages were then calibrated using the OxCal v4.0 calibration program and the IntCal 04 calibration curve. All calibrated ages are reported as calibrated 2 sigma ranges before present (cal BP). The data in Appendix 1 report the method used, material type, paleoseismic significance, sample and lab numbers, lab age, 13C/12C ratios, and two-sigma calendar calibration result for each of the 20 radiocarbon samples. References for the calibration methods, as reported by Beta Analytic Inc. are: Stuiver, M., and van der Plicht, H., Radiocarbon, 1998, vol. 40, no. 3, p. xii-xiii. Stuiver, M. and others, Radiocarbon, 1998, vol. 40, no. 3, p. 1041-1083. Talma, A.S. and Vogel, J.C., Radiocarbon, 1993, vol. 35, no. 2, p. 317-322.

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    Locations of points recorded in the table were recorded using a Garmin GPS model 76CSx with a horizontal error of 4 meters or less. The locations are for approximate mid-point of each trench. Individual radiocarbon age samples in Apppendix 1 are referred to their respective trenches and core sites whose locations are listed in Table 1. The actual location of each radiocarbon sample within the trench or core is shown in the trench logs and core logs in the figures of this report. Locations shown on the logs were determined using a metric tape, measuring distances from defined origins, to half-centimeter accuracy.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    This dataset includes 18 of the 23 carbon samples that were submitted from this project to Beta Analytic Inc. after the 2007 field season. Of the 23 submitted, three did not have sufficient carbon material to date and the analyses were cancelled. The two unreported samples, from the Billy Creek Trench, yielded results with modern 14C signatures. These samples, both from within a half meter from the surface, are interpreted as being the result of recent localized animal activity and thus not representative.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    not applicable


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints:
This report, map, and/or dataset are available directly from the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (see contact information below).
Use_Constraints:
Any hard copies or published datasets utilizing these datasets shall clearly indicate their source. If the user has modified the data in any way, the user is obligated to describe the types of modifications the user has made. User specifically agrees not to misrepresent these datasets, nor to imply that changes made by the user were approved by the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
    Natural Resource Technician
    3354 College Road
    Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707
    USA

    907-451-5020 (voice)
    907-451-5050 (FAX)
    dggspubs@alaska.gov

    Hours_of_Service: 8 am to 4:30 pm, Monday through Friday, except State holidays
    Contact_Instructions:
    Please view our Web site (<http://www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us>) for the latest information on available data. Please contact us using the e-mail address provided above when possible.
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2008-3D

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    The State of Alaska makes no express or implied warranties (including warranties of merchantability and fitness) with respect to the character, function, or capabilities of the electronic services or products or their appropriateness for any user's purposes. In no event will the State of Alaska be liable for any incidental, indirect, special, consequential, or other damages suffered by the user or any other person or entity whether from the use of the electronic services or products, any failure thereof, or otherwise, and in no event will the State of Alaska's liability to the requester or anyone else exceed the fee paid for the electronic service or product.

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 30-Sep-2008
Metadata author:
State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
Metadata Manager
3354 College Road
Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707
USA

907-451-5039 (voice)
907-451-5050 (FAX)
dggspubs@alaska.gov

Hours_of_Service: 8 am to 4:30 pm, Monday through Friday, except State holidays.
Contact_Instructions:
Please contact us through the e-mail address above whenever possible.
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


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