border: Outline of the study area. max-flow-depth: Raster images depicting maximum composite flow depths over dry land. Pixel values provide the modeled depth (in meters) of maximum inundation. For each grid point, the pixel value provides the modeled depth of water (in meters) over previously dry land, representing the maximum depth value of all calculated tsunami scenarios. max-inundation-line: Estimated, "maximum credible scenario" inundation line(s) that encompasses the maximum extent of flooding based on model simulation of all credible source scenarios and historical observations. The "maximum credible scenario" inundation lines are intended to be utilized as a basis for local tsunami hazard planning and development of evacuation maps. scenarios: Collection of shapefiles that depict the modeled potential maximum inundation by tectonic waves for each modeled scenario. Detailed information about each scenario can be found in the accompanying report. time-series-points: To help emergency management personnel assess tsunami hazards, we supplement the inundation maps with the time series plots of the modeled water level and velocity dynamics at some on-land and some offshore locations in the communities. The plots are provided in the appendices of the report. These shapefiles provide the location of each time series point.
Suleimani, E.N., Nicolsky, D.J., Koehler, R.D., Freymueller, J.T., and Macpherson, A.E., 2016, Tsunami inundation maps for King Cove and Cold Bay communities, Alaska: Report of Investigation RI 2016-1, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States.
This is a vector data set.
Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest .000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest .000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in decimal degrees.
The horizontal datum used is World Geodetic System of 1984.
The ellipsoid used is WGS 84.
The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.
The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.
Appendices A and B
Appendices A and B
This project received support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under Reimbursable Services Agreement ADN 952011 with the State of Alaska's Division of Homeland Security & Emergency Management (a division of the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs). Some research in this publication is sponsored by the Cooperative Institute for Alaska Research with funds from NOAA under cooperative agreement NA08OAR4320751 with the University of Alaska Fairbanks. We thank Lander Ver Hoef for his help with the RTK GPS survey in Cold Bay and King Cove. Numerical calculations for this work were supported by a grant of High Performance Computing (HPC) resources from the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. We thank Alyssa Pampell Manis for her detailed review that helped improve the report, and also an anonymous reviewer for a number of insightful comments and suggestions.
Results presented here are intended to provide guidance to local emergency management agencies in tsunami inundation assessment, evacuation planning, and public education to mitigate future tsunami hazards.
The maps showing the results of our modeling have been completed using the best information available and are believed to be accurate, however, their preparation required many assumptions. We described several scenarios and provide an estimate of maximum credible tsunami inundation. Actual conditions during a tsunami event may vary from those considered, so the accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The limits of inundation shown should be used only as a guideline for emergency planning and response action. Actual areas inundated will depend on specifics of the earth deformations, on-land construction, and tide level, and they may differ from areas shown on the map. The information on this map is intended to provide a basis for state and local agencies to plan emergency evacuation and tsunami response actions in the event of a major tsunamigenic earthquake. These results are not intended for land-use regulation or building-code development. This DGGS Report of Investigations is a final report of scientific research. It has received technical review by several scientists familiar with the subject matter. Uncertainties associated with the depiction or interpretation of various features are discussed in the manuscript.
The hydrodynamic model used to calculate propagation and runup of tsunami waves is a nonlinear, flux-formulated, shallow-water model. It passes the validation and verification tests required for models used in production of tsunami inundation maps. The source mechanism remains the biggest unknown in the problem of tsunami modeling. Since the initial condition for the modeling is determined by the displacement of the ocean bottom, the largest source of error is the earthquake model. When the tsunami is generated in the vicinity of the coast, the direction of the incoming waves, their amplitudes and times of arrival are determined by the initial displacements of the ocean surface in the source area because the distance to the shore is too small for the waves to dissipate. Therefore, the near-field inundation modeling results are especially sensitive to the fine structure of the tsunami source. The modeling process is highly sensitive to errors when the complexity of the source function is combined with its proximity to the coastal zone. Additionally, during development of tsunami inundation maps a spatially-averaged ground subsidence/uplift model is assumed. However, during a potential earthquake, soil compaction in areas of unconsolidated deposits in the coastal zone might occur, and tsunami inundation could extend farther landward. Finally, we mention that the horizontal resolution of the highest resolution grid that was used for inundation modeling is about 16 m (53 ft). This resolution is high enough to describe major relief features, but small topographic features, buildings, and other facilities cannot be resolved accurately by the existing model.
The vertical accuracy of the inundation modeling is dependent on the accuracy and resolution of the digital elevation models (DEMs) and tidal datum values that were used to compile the computational grid. Prior to scenario modeling, bathymetric data were shifted to use Mean Higher High Water (MHHW) as the vertical datum. The depths of inundation shown should be used only as a guideline for emergency planning and response action. Actual inundation water depth will depend on specifics of the earth deformations, on-land construction, and tide level, and they may differ from areas shown by this data. The information is intended to permit state and local agencies to plan emergency evacuation and tsunami response actions in the event of a major tsunamigenic earthquake. These results are not intended for land-use regulation or building-code development. For additional information please reference the Grid Development and Data Sources section of the associated manuscript.
The results of our modeling have been completed using the best information available and are believed to be accurate; however, their preparation required many assumptions and actual conditions during a tsunami event may vary from those considered.
Model validation for this report included comparison of the modeled results to observations that were recorded during historic events.
Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
- This report, map, and/or dataset is available directly from the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (see contact information below).
- This dataset includes results of numerical modeling of earthquake-generated tsunami waves for a specific community. Modeling was completed using the best information and tsunami modeling software available at the time of analysis. They are numerical solutions and, while they are believed to be accurate, their ultimate accuracy during an actual tsunami will depend on the specifics of earth deformations, on-land construction, tide level, and other parameters at the time of the tsunami. Actual areas of inundation may differ from areas shown in this dataset. Landslide tsunami sources may not be included in the modeling due to unknown potential impact of such events on a given community; please refer to accompanying report for more information on tsunami sources used for this study. The limits of inundation shown should only be used as a general guideline for emergency planning and response action in the event of a major tsunamigenic earthquake. These results are not intended for any other use, including land-use regulation or actuarial purposes. Any hard copies or published datasets utilizing these datasets shall clearly indicate their source. If the user has modified the data in any way, the user is obligated to describe the types of modifications the user has made. The user specifically agrees not to misrepresent these datasets, nor to imply that changes made by the user were approved by the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys. The State of Alaska makes no express or implied warranties (including warranties for merchantability and fitness) with respect to the character, functions, or capabilities of the electronic data or products or their appropriateness for any user's purposes. In no event will the State of Alaska be liable for any incidental, indirect, special, consequential, or other damages suffered by the user or any other person or entity whether from the use of the electronic services or products or any failure thereof or otherwise. In no event will the State of Alaska's liability to the Requestor or anyone else exceed the fee paid for the electronic service or product.
The State of Alaska makes no expressed or implied warranties (including warranties for merchantability and fitness) with respect to the character, functions, or capabilities of the electronic data or products or their appropriateness for any user's purposes. In no event will the State of Alaska be liable for any incidental, indirect, special, consequential, or other damages suffered by the user or any other person or entity whether from the use of the electronic services or products or any failure thereof or otherwise. In no event will the State of Alaska's liability to the Requestor or anyone else exceed the fee paid for the electronic service or product.
DGGS publications are available as free online downloads or you may purchase paper hard-copies or digital files on CD/DVD or other digital storage media by mail, phone, fax, or email from the DGGS Fairbanks office. To purchase this or other printed reports and maps, contact DGGS by phone (907-451-5020), e-mail (email@example.com), or fax (907-451-5050). Payment accepted: Cash, check, money order, VISA, or MasterCard. Turnaround time is 1-2 weeks unless special arrangements are made and an express fee is paid. Shipping charge will be the actual cost of postage and will be added to the total amount due. Contact us for the exact shipping amount.
|Data format:||Shapefiles, Raster data|