Explosive eruptions can blast pebble- to boulder-sized fragments of rock, ice, or pumice into the air, where they travel on arcuate, ballistic trajectories away from the vent. These projectiles, called ballistics, fall at high speed, and can injure or kill people, and crush or damage equipment and buildings. Most ballistics will fall within a few kilometers of the vent.Beget, J.E., Larsen, J.F., Neal, C.A., Nye, C.J., and Schaefer, J.R., 2005, Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Okmok Volcano, Umnak Island, Alaska: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Report of Investigation 2004-3, 32 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:150,000.

Below is a list of publications related to Ballistics. Select a publication number to access more detailed information and their respective files available for download.

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B 2139 Report
Keith, T.E.C., 1995, The 1992 eruptions of Crater Peak vent, Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2139, 220 p.
OF 2001-45 Outside Link
Mastin, L.G., 2001, A simple calculator of ballistic trajectories for blocks ejected during volcanic eruptions: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2001-45.