Howkins, C.A., 1992, A model for shallow marine placer deposition: based on the marine gold placers at Nome, Alaska: Toronto, Ontario, Canada, University of Toronto, M.S. thesis, 188 p., illust., maps.
A model for the formation of shallow marine placer deposits has been developed from a study of the marine gold placer deposits within a 4,898 hectare area of Norton Sound, offshore of Nome, Alaska. Data used in the study include sediment texture, gold content, gold particle size distribution, and stratigraphic information derived from 3,600 drill holes, 3,400 line km of high-resolution reflection seismic, side-scan sonar and bathymetry data, ocean floor photographs, and four years of mining activity. The analysis of these data revealed that the Nome placer deposit is not uniform but is a combination of discrete mineral concentrations, placers. By examining the complex interrelationship between bedrock morphology, stratigraphy, bathymetry, ocean floor geology, and gold distribution in the study area, it was found that three principal factors govern the formation of the anomalous gold concentrations: source, concentration, and preservation. The interrelationship of these three factors forms the basis of the model.
Theses and Dissertations